पशुधन में बीमारी और एक प्रमुख निर्यात देश में पोल्ट्री के स्थितियों को संभालने के लिए एक अंतरराष्ट्रीय व्यापार प्रोटोकॉल विकसित किया गया है. Now that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been found in flocks of turkeys in the U.S., countries have to follow through on those commitments. अमेरिका. supply of poultry meat is too important to the world market to shut it out of trade.
The H5N2 strain poses little threat to humans, although it is highly contagious among birds. So far no humans have been infected according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The disease has been found in turkey flocks in Minnesota, कैनसस, Missouri and Arkansas. None of the birds from the affected flocks has entered the food chain. This is the same strain of HPAI as found in backyard and wild birds in Washington, Oregon and Idaho; the H5N8 strain has also been found in California in commercial poultry. The couple in Canada that contracted the flu in China has the H7N9 strain.
This is the first instance of APHI in commercial poultry in the U.S. के बाद से 2004 and the biggest outbreak since 1997. Arkansas, मिनेसोटा, Missouri and Kansas are all along the Mississippi migratory wild bird flight path suspected to be the source of the recent infections. To contain any further spread, a six-mile quarantine is established around affected farms, with all poultry operations within the area monitored.
को विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन has determined that HPAI viruses can survive in raw poultry, so it is possible to spread them via fresh or frozen products. पशु एवं पादप स्वास्थ्य निरीक्षण सेवा (APHIS) of USDA has informed the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and trading partners of the outbreaks. USDA is also encouraging trading partners to follow OIE standards and minimize trade disruptions.
OIE guidelines require trading partners to base government restrictions on sound science and limit trade restrictions to a defined region or area that is at risk of spreading the disease. That is a key issue for the U.S. to maintain trade. HPAI among turkeys in Minnesota is no reason to stop trade in broilers from the Delmarva Peninsula or Georgia.
जनवरी में, China did exactly what should not be done – it banned imports of all U.S. poultry and eggs after the California discovery; even though it is a major buyer of U.S. turkey and chicken. Hong Kong officials did the exact opposite in banning imports of poultry meat and products from a single county in Missouri. Most countries ban an entire state. अधिक से अधिक 40 countries banned poultry imports from Minnesota after HPAI was found.
मेक्सिको, the largest U.S. निर्यात बाजार में 18 percent for broilers and 64 percent for turkey meat, took the usual approach of first banning poultry products from California and then Minnesota. Mexico has had its own intensive three-year battle with HPAI. Its low-income category of consumers depends on poultry meat and eggs as major sources of protein. Mexico can neither afford a re-infection of HPAI free areas nor cutoff too many sources of supplies in the U.S.
Countries that have imposed bans include the EU and most of Central America. Canada has banned the import of all poultry products from five U.S. राज्य अमेरिका – कैलिफोर्निया, Idaho, मिनेसोटा, Oregon and Washington.
के बारे में 12 अमेरिका का प्रतिशत. turkey production and 18 percent of broiler production are expected to be exported this year. अनुमानों के मुताबिक विदेशी कृषि सेवा द्वारा (फैस) USDA के, के बारे में 10.5 मिलियन मेट्रिक टन (एमएमटी) of boilers were traded in 2014, यू. एस के साथ. supplying 3.3 एमएमटी, 31 प्रतिशत. The number one supplier, ब्राज़ील, moved 3.6 एमएमटी. The EU was the third largest at 1.1 एमएमटी, followed by Thailand at about 0.5 एमएमटी. Japan was the number one buyer at 0.9 एमएमटी.
Turkey meat is not estimated by country, लेकिन अमेरिका. is thought to be the biggest producer at 6.0 एमएमटी में 2014, with exports of 0.8 एमएमटी, two-thirds of which go to Mexico.
In terms of markets for U.S. कुक्कुट मांस, Mexico was by far the biggest in 2014 पर 970,000 मेट्रिक टन (मीट्रिक टन), 24 की प्रतिशत 4.1 MMT of poultry meat and products (excluding eggs) निर्यात. Hong Kong was a distant number two at 340,000 मीट्रिक टन. चीन गया था नंबर तीन पर 240,000 मीट्रिक टन, closely followed by Angola and Canada.
While the disruptions in production from HPAI have been in turkeys, the bigger issue is broilers. Regionalization again is key from a trade standpoint. Arkansas, Mississippi and Alabama are in the Mississippi flyway for migratory birds, but the east coast production centers are not. But the industry is not waiting for that. They are working with state Departments of Agriculture and USDA to further improvements in biosecurity.
Beef and pork producers in the U.S. and around the world have a stake in these developments. As poultry prices come under more pressure, they may drag down beef and pork prices depending on how long current import bans by countries remain in effect and if more countries impose bans. Broiler meat is not a perfect substitute for red meat, but at some price it will occur, particularly with beef at record higher prices.
With more consumers trade dependent for their daily food supplies, this is a critical test of the food safety procedures around the world. Regardless of the outcomes, procedures will likely need to fine tuned to deal with future disease problems.
रॉस Korves एक व्यापार और आर्थिक नीति विश्लेषक सच्चाई के बारे में व्यापार के साथ है & प्रौद्योगिकी (www.truthabouttrade.org). हमें का पालन करें: @TruthAboutTrade और @World_Farmers चहचहाना पर | व्यापार के बारे में सच्चाई & फेसबुक पर प्रौद्योगिकी.