यू.एस. कारोबार प्रतिनिधि (यूएसटीआर) माइकल Froman हाल ही में सीनेट वित्त समिति है कि वे अमेरिका को स्वीकार किया. विश्व व्यापार संगठन में चीनी कपास सब्सिडी को चुनौती दे सकता है, but said he has been looking at it in the context of multilateral subsidies disciplines. WTO Director-General Roberto Azevedo is trying to develop a work program aimed at advancing the stalled Doha Round of WTO trade policy negotiation begun in 2001 और कृषि सब्सिडी उस योजना का हिस्सा होगी.

अमेरिका. स्थिति यह है कि कृषि सब्सिडी पर अस्थायी समझौते में पहुँच गया 2008 based on programs earlier in the decade are no longer reflective of trade realities. Emerging markets countries like China, India and Brazil make few efforts to limit domestic support programs and do not provide enough market access. According to the Foreign Agricultural Service of USDA, ब्राजील निर्यात करेगा 3.4 million bales this year compared to less than a million bales per year in all years but one in the 1980s and1990s. India was not a consistent, पैदावार में वृद्धि से पहले महत्वपूर्ण कपास निर्यातक 2003/04 due to hybrid and biotech seeds. Now India is consistently the second largest cotton exporter after the U.S.

की एक रिपोर्ट के अनुसार यूएस ट्रेड के अंदर, एक सवाल के जवाब में Froman ने कहा, We’re looking at all our options [चीन कपास सब्सिडी पर]. We have not yet determined whether there is a case to be brought in this area. Earlier in his prepared testimony, Froman ने समिति को अपनी प्राथमिकताओं में से एक बताया 2015 करना था, ensure that our trading partners honor their commitments, including in the WTO and under our trade agreements. Last October at a USTR public hearing the National Cotton Council said China committed when acceding to the WTO to subsidies not exceeding 8.5 कपास उत्पादन के मूल्य का प्रतिशत, लेकिन यह लगभग पहुंच गया था 31 में प्रतिशत 2012 तथा 2013.

जबकि सीनेट कृषि समिति में सवाल कपास से संबंधित है, the issues for the WTO Doha talks include all of agriculture and non-agriculture also. The December 2013 बाली में विश्व व्यापार संगठन के मंत्री, इंडोनेशिया ने दिसंबर तय किया था 2014 दोहा वार्ता की योजनाबद्ध पुनः आरंभ करने की तारीख, but that was reset last November by the WTO General Council to July of this year. The WTO had been unable to meet its Trade Facilitation Agreement implementation deadline of July 31, 2014 और उस मुद्दे पर पांच महीने बिताए.

यू.एस. कृषि समूहों के पास इस बात पर विचार करने के लिए बहुत समय है कि विकासशील देशों में घरेलू कृषि नीतियां किस तरह से अंतिम रूप से व्यापार को नया रूप दे रही हैं 15 years. They watched as India delayed the Trade Facilitation Agreement to get dispensation for its domestic support policies that results in excess production being sold in world markets for less than domestic support prices. In recent months they have heard how Brazils sugar industry will be revitalized with low interest government loans at a time of continued low world sugar market prices.

USTR Froman has undoubtedly heard about the behind the scene research being done on support policies of developing countries that have supported prices at far higher prices that in the U.S. Those had limited impacts when world market prices were at historical highs and farming operations were profitable. As world market prices have declined, अमेरिका. has implementing new domestic farm policy that more closely aligns with market forces. The USTRs office will feel more pressure from the countryside to consider the market realities.

Froman made his views clear in writing for the USTR-Geneva Mission website on restarting the Doha talks. He made four points related to the agricultural negotiations, In 2008, the proposed solution was that developed countries would cut their agricultural subsidies while developing countries would notJust last year, एक समूह जो कृषि-निर्यातक देशों का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है, समान रूप से विकसित और विकसित, published a report listing the top four users of trade-distorting agricultural subsidies in todays world, पहले भारत के साथ, इसके बाद चीन है, यूरोपियन संघटन, and the United StatesIn reality, trade distorting subsidies from emerging economies have the same impact on global commodity prices as trade-distorting subsidies from developed countries. The United States is willing to wade back into the complex thicket of agricultural trade negotiations, but only if the discussion reflects todays reality.

डब्ल्यूटीओ में चर्चा किए गए एक विश्लेषण के आधार पर, अमेरिका. के नीचे 2008 फार्म बिल मसौदे के तहत अपनी प्रतिबद्धताओं को पूरा करने में सक्षम नहीं होगा 2008 Doha texts. It would have been over the limit by $3.6 billion in 2012. An analysis had not been done with the changes in the 2014 farm bill. It is not clear whether the U.S. अपनी अगली सब्सिडी अधिसूचना में फसल बीमा को व्यापार-विकृतियों के रूप में वर्गीकृत करेगा.

व्यापार अधिकारी कृषि और गैर-कृषि बाजार पहुंच की प्रगति के बीच संबंधों पर भी चर्चा कर रहे हैं (नाम). Some countries want to see changes in agriculture issues before committing to NAMA access, while others have the exact opposite concerns. The linkages will likely remain and both groups of issue will have to move in tandem.

यूएसटीआर की टिप्पणियों की यह व्याख्या नहीं की जानी चाहिए कि यू.एस.. सरकार या यू.एस.. farmers are pulling back on subsidy reduction or market access issues. As Froman said, इससे कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता कि सब्सिडी कहां से आती है; they have the same impact on the market. The real problem goes back to 2001 when the middle-income developing countries were told they did not have to give-up any of their existing trade-distorting domestic policies to pursue more open trade. That is why the Doha talks have not progressed since 2005. The talks became about excuses why trade cannot be more open for middle-income developing countries rather than why more open trade was essential for faster economic growth.

The end result was that developed and developing countries have spent the last ten years sitting on their hands and a decade of multilateral trade reforms was lost. All sides in the talks have to go back to square one and consider what could be growth markets for them with trade reforms and what current policies would they give-up to gain access to those markets. The age of looking for something for nothing is over.

 

रॉस Korves व्यापार के बारे में सच्चाई के साथ एक व्यापार और आर्थिक नीति विश्लेषक है & प्रौद्योगिकी (http://www.truthabouttrade.org).

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