The announcement was the end of a process that began last November when the Secretary of the Economy published a notice regarding the conclusion of the duties and asking beef producers for comments and justifications for continuing the duties. अप्रैल में 2010 the government began a formal sunset review process by seeking further input from beef producers concerning continuing, eliminating or modifying the duties.
The duties began in April of 2000 and were ratified for another five years in April of 2006. की जुलाई में 1998 some cattle producers and beef processors petitioned the Mexican government to investigate the U.S. for allegedly dumping (selling below costs) of beef into the Mexican market. अगस्त में 1999 the Commerce Secretariat announced preliminary anti-dumping duties. Mexico modified the duties in 2004 after a NAFTA panel determined the Secretary of the Economy did not sufficiently demonstrate U.S. beef imports had damaged Mexico’s beef industry. The final duties ranged from $0.03 करने के लिए $0.29 per pound and applied to about half of U.S. गोमांस उत्पादन. को 2007 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade from the U.S. व्यापार प्रतिनिधि (USTR) reported industry representatives asserted the duties caused a loss of $100-500 million in revenue each year.
When NAFTA began in 1995, अमेरिका. exports of beef and veal to Mexico totaled only $86 लाख के मुकाबले $364 million to Canada and $1.7 अरब जापान करने के लिए. द्वारा 2000 when the duties were imposed, अमेरिका. exports to Mexico had risen to $512 million and declined to $299 million for Canada and to $1.5 billion for Japan. The discovery of BSE in the U.S. दिसंबर में 2003 caused turmoil in all U.S. बाजार, but the Mexican market recovered the quickest. में 2009, the Mexican market for U.S. beef and veal reached $746 million and Canada $622 दस लाख, while Japan recovered to only $411 दस लाख. According the USTR’s March 2010 स्वच्छता पर रिपोर्ट और Phytosanitary उपाय, after the discovery of BSE Mexico was the first country in March 2004 to accept U.S. deboned beef less than 30 months old and in early 2006 accepted bone-in beef less than 30 उम्र के महीनों की. अक्टूबर में 2008, Mexico agreed to import beef breeding animals born after 1999. Despite those decisions, Mexico still refuses to accept beef over 30 months of age and ground beef.
The decision by the Mexican government to end the beef anti-dumping duties is consistent with other government action on trade issues over the last five years. जनवरी में 2006 the Secretary of the Economy ruled there was not sufficient evidence that domestic pork producers were hurt by imports from the U.S. A similar conclusion was reached in September 2006 on rice imports from the U.S. दिसंबर में 2007 a NAFTA safeguard tariff-rate quota on chicken leg quarters was allowed to expire. In the latest action before the beef decision, the government ended compensatory duties on red and golden delicious apples. अमेरिका. Meat Export Federation Regional Representative Chad Russell commented after the beef announcement, “In recent years, the interested parties in Mexico have concluded that the duties offer them no advantage…This really shows how far the U.S. industry has come in developing a strong trade relationship with Mexico.”
The Mexican cattle industry is integrated with the U.S. उद्योग. According to estimates for 2010 अमेरिका से. Agricultural Attaché in Mexico City, मेक्सिको के बारे में है 7.0 million beef cows and 3.3 million dairy cows. The calf crop is estimated at 6.8 दस लाख के साथ 1.0 million calves moving live to the U.S., 14.7 उत्पादन का प्रतिशत. Total slaughter for 2010 पर अनुमान है 6.03 दस लाख, के साथ 1.55 million cows, 0.33 million calves and 4.15 million other beef animals. Slaughter on a carcass weight basis is estimated at 1.74 मिलियन मेट्रिक टन (एमएमटी) एक और के साथ 0.33 एमएमटी आयात, ज्यादातर अमेरिका से. और कनाडा. के बारे में 55,000 MT are expected to be exported, ऊपर से 45,000 MT last year and 42,000 मीट्रिक टन में 2008. Total domestic beef consumption is estimated at 2.0 एमएमटी, के साथ 16.5 percent of that imported. The Mexican beef industry is also integrated into the U.S. feed grains market. Those one million head of calves that move north are fed out on U.S. corn and grain sorghum and corn exports to Mexico for feed use and processing for the current market year are estimated at 8.0 एमएमटी. Sorghum exports are estimated at 2.6 एमएमटी.
The decisions in recent years by the Mexico government and industries to move away from import restrictions based on price is not the end of trade policy disagreements. The lingering restrictions due to BSE concerns are evidence of that condition. All three NAFTA countries have controlled risk status for BSE from the World Organization for Animal Heath, and Mexico has become a modest exporter of beef, including to some Asian markets. Sanitary and phytosanitary issues will become more important as identified in NAFTA AT 15: Building On Free Trade, a March 2009 Congressional mandated report from the Economic Research Service of USDA, “The NAFTA governments have long been aware of the importance of regulatory coordination to agricultural trade. पिछले 15 साल, they have ﬁnne-tuned many of their sanitary, phytosanitary, and other regulatory measures in ways that have opened doors to new trading opportunities.”
Country of origin labeling (कूल) will remain an issue. NAFTA and WTO agreements recognize the right of countries to apply some type of “origin marking” or “mark of origin.” Unless the three countries work out an understanding, dispute resolution panels will ultimately decide if the current COOL requirements are consistent with U.S. obligations under those agreements. जल्दी मई में 2010 the WTO composed a panel to investigate a complaint from Canada, Mexico and other countries.
Disagreement will occur as trade increases because old ways of doing business will be disrupted. The policy activities under NAFTA for the past 15 years show that governments can work through issues and arrive at understandings that work to the benefit of producers and consumers.