"बैंगन,"भोजन के लिए ऑक्सफोर्ड कंपेनियन नोट्स, “is not an appropriate name for the varieties sold in western countries.”
Everywhere else, ऐसा लगता है, people have a different name for this crop. ब्रिटेन में, they call it an “aubergine,” which sounds too French for my tastes. In the Caribbean, it’s a “brown jolly,” which has a nice ring to it even though the plant isn’t brown. This odd name is almost certainly a corruption of the Indian word, imported by immigrants: “brinjal.”
The Indians are the world champs of brinjal or eggplant production. कुछ 25 million of their farmers–more than the population of Texas–cultivate the crop. प्रत्येक वर्ष, they grow more than 8 million tons of it. And by 2007 या 2008, they may have access to a GM eggplant that boosts their yields dramatically. That’s good news because it will give them some added protection they need.
Don’t you hate it when you buy a dozen eggs at the grocery store and half of them crack on the way home? अच्छी तरह से, that’s sort of what eggplant farmers experience all the time: Indian farmers, उदाहरण के लिए, routinely lose more than half of their eggplants to insect pests. Most of them are poor, and improved yields are a key to their economic wellbeing.
We put eggs in cartons to protect them. Eggplant farmers try to protect their crops with chemical sprays. Here in New Jersey, I’ve grown eggplants for about 30 साल, and one thing I’ve learned is that you can’t spray them enough to keep them healthy. The Colorado potato beetle loves to eat eggplants. If the weather turns hot, mites infest it. And if mites get going, forget about it: Your eggplant crop is lost.
किसानों के लिए, these bugs hurt our yields and the insecticides hurt our bottom line. That’s why the promise of genetically enhanced eggplants is so high: If we can take advantage of the same technologies that have revolutionized soybean, मकई, and cotton farming, then we’ll be able to produce eggplants that are more readily available, better looking, and less expensive for consumers.
The initial research behind GM eggplants took place in the United States, partly at Cornell University. India offers the biggest market for this innovation, बेशक, and right now it’s performing large-scale, open-field tests so that regulators can learn all there is to know about this new crop.
Anti-biotech activists are of course throwing their usual temper tantrums. They’re trying to get the Indian courts to stop these trials. Local Greenpeace protestors want bans and labels. अगर वे सफल, they’ll do enormous damage to a technology that carries remarkable potential not just for Indians, but for poor farmers in Bangladesh and the Philippines, where brinjal is also popular.
“The benefits to farmers in the three countries where brinjal is the common man’s food will be in the region of $600 million because of higher income to farmers and the saving on pesticides usage,” said K. Vijayraghavan, an Indian scientist who is working on the GM eggplant project.
It’s a healthy crop, भी: A fundamental source of food that isn’t a grain. It’s low in cholesterol and calories and high in important vitamins.
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका में, eggplants are more of a delicacy than a staple food. They’re still seen as slightly exotic. That’s how the plant got its American name, वैसे तो: From an uncommon variety of the plant that produces a fruit that’s white, छोटा सा, and round–it looks a lot like an egg. (The Australians, वास्तव में, call it “eggfruit” and in some West African countries, it’s a “garden egg.”)
I wish I could say that brinjal by any other names tastes just as sweet, but in truth eggplants are bitter before you cook them. But with a little preparation, they can have a rich flavor. Italian restaurants like to serve them with tomatoes, and they go well with veal.
I hope they have a chance to go well with biotechnology, भी. Mangiare!
जॉन Rigolizzo, जे आर. एक पांचवीं पीढ़ी किसान है, ताजा सब्जियों और दक्षिणी न्यू जर्सी में फ़ील्ड मकई की परवरिश. परिवार के खेत सड़क तरफ खुदरा और थोक बाजारों का प्रबंधन. जॉन के बारे में सत्य व्यापार और प्रौद्योगिकी के एक बोर्ड का सदस्य है (www.truthabouttrrade.org)