Deu anys després d'ambientalització cítric va ser descoberta a la Florida en 2005, the citrus industry is ready to field test a potential solution. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ha aprovat un permís d'ús ambiental (EUP) aplicació sota l'insecticida Federal, Fungicida i poden dividir (FIFRA) Jardins del sud de cítrics (SGC) to conduct large scale tests of citrus plants with a protein derived from spinach that appears to help control the disease. SGC President Rick Kress noted in a news release that a final solution to eliminating this disease may still take years.

The EPA website has the following general explanation about EUPs. “EPA requires that a pesticide product undergo extensive chemical, toxicològiques, and field-testing before being registered as a pesticide. Some testing is done under field conditions using commercial application equipment to fully understand the pesticide’s chemical properties, seguretat, and efficacy. Because testing undertaken as part of the registration process necessarily involves an unregistered product or is for a use not previously approved in the registration of the pesticide, EPA sometimes must first authorize the distribution and sale under FIFRA section 5. The EUP establishes limited conditions for the transportation, aplicació, and disposal of the pesticide material used in the tests. Pesticides registered under an EUP may not be sold or distributed other than through approved participants in the test program, and use is limited to the conditions specified in the EUP. Biopesticides also require EUPs when used in experimental settings.”

Ambientalització cítric primer s'ha detectat el 1900 quan es va destruir cítrics de la Xina, on es coneix com a huanglongbing (HLB), traduït com malaltia disparar groc, by choking off the flow of nutrients. La malaltia es transmet per la psyllid cítric asiàtic, per primer cop en Florida en 1998, un insecte que xucla els bacteris d'un arbre i injecta-los en un altre com s'alimenta de la saba de les fulles. The citrus industry in Florida tripled pesticide applications in an attempt to kill the insects to stop or slow the spread of the disease and feeds citrus trees additional micro- i macro-nutrients i productes de millora de la resistència, però l'eradicació no ara es considera una opció viable.

Segons un informe de força de treball del Consell Nacional de recerca (NRC) Publicat en 2010, una revisió de cítrics cultivades existents arreu del món trobar poca o cap evidència de la immunitat per qualsevol varietat. The lack of immunity in any cultivated variety eliminated traditional breeding to transfer immunity into commercial varieties. With no hope of eradicating the disease or transferring immunity by traditional breeding, el futur de la producció de suc de taronja comercial a Florida era en risc.

Això va conduir SGC, one of the largest citrus producers in Florida, with three groves all infected with citrus greening, to seek solutions to the disease. They participated in a wide variety of research projects with several universities and state and federal agencies focused on developing environmentally sound and scientifically proven methods to manage and control the disease. Included was the research on the protein derived from spinach that attacks the invading bacteria, que va ser desenvolupat a través d'un programa amb Texas A&M la recerca universitària Agri-vida i Erik Mirkov, Professor de Virologia de la planta a Texas A&Universitat de M, Weslaco.

SGC ara poden seguir endavant amb les proves de camp, coherent amb les condicions establertes per l'EPA en l'EUP, per avaluar l'eficàcia de les espinacs proteïnes contra Ambientalització cítric en cítrics teixits de plantes i continuar generar ambiental, health and safety data that are required under federal law to support a fully registered product for commercial use. On the basis of SGC’s related petition, EPA també ha conclòs que els residus de la proteïna d'espinacs en cítrics són segurs per al públic.

President de la companyia Kress va dir a la premsa, “The company directed a research focus towards spinach because it is already safely consumed daily and should be more favorably received by consumers.” Kress went on to say, "És important indicar que com tots nosaltres regulador controlat judicis de camp i valoracions són en marxa, there is no citrus fruit or juice product from the tests in the commercial product market today.” As EPA said in its general explanation about EUPs, “Some testing is done under field conditions…” Research theories and experiments will now be put to the test under real field conditions as allowed by the EUP from EPA.

Mentre que hi ha un munt de proves d'altres cultius sobre la seguretat de la tecnologia, each crop is judged on the research information provided to EPA from field trials. The oranges from these trees are expected to be the same as conventional oranges, but that will have to be shown by the results of the data collected for EPA. Sobre 4.5 milions hectàrees de cultius biotecnològics ha crescut arreu del món ja que la tecnologia ha estat comercialitzada a 1996.

Si aquesta recerca es desenvolupa com s'esperava, taronges no serà la primera fruita que ha beneficiat de la biotecnologia. Durant la dècada de 1990, agricultors papaia a Hawaii gairebé perdut la indústria en la mortal ringspot virus que es va estendre a través de les Illes. Es va fer gairebé impossible de conrear la fruita. Papayas were made resistant to the virus by inserting a piece of the virus’s own genes into papayas, efectivament majoria tenen plantes. The industry has recovered and 2,500 acres of biotech papayas are grown in Hawaii. China has about 20,000 hectàrees. Other countries are developing resistant papayas for local markets.

Bananas may be next on the list of fruits threatened. The popular Cavendish variety is threatened by the Fusarium wilt fungus that has been spreading around the world for the last 20 anys.

Com continuar els assaigs de camp, the industry is looking ahead to consumer reactions. Oranges and orange juice are widely traded globally. Citrus greening also exists wherever oranges are grown. What consumers decide will influence production and trade around the world.

Ross Korves és un comerç i analista de política econòmica de veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia (www.truthabouttrade.org). Segueix-nos: @TruthAboutTrade i @World_Farmers a Twitter | Veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia en Facebook.