Els negociadors WTO agrícoles es va reunir a finals de març per més profunda debats sobre qüestions de política de comerç per a un programa de treball per ser esbossat per juliol 31 that would lead to a conclusion of the Doha Round of negotiations. Negotiators are becoming more familiar with the issues, però convergència encara sembla ser fora del seu abast.

According to agricultural talk’s chairperson John Adank, Ambaixador de Nova Zelanda a l'OMC, s'ha centrat principalment en suports domèstics i accés al mercat. El recolzament interior, the attention has been on ‘overall trade-distorting domestic support’. This is the total of three categories: Caixa d'ambre (la més comerç-distorsionant), Caixa blava (similar a la caixa d'Amber, però amb limitacions per reduir les distorsions) and de minimis (petita quantitat de suport Amber caixa es limita actualment a 5 per cent del valor de la producció als països desenvolupats, 10 per cent per als països en vies de desenvolupament). This would limit ‘box shifting’ and total domestic support.

Alguns negociadors va dir que els suports més alt hauria de ser reduït més, which has been the assumption in past discussions. Others pushed for less ambitious disciplines as being more pragmatic and doable. One said there are two main questions: Què és l'u. preparat per fer si altres fer o no fer reduccions? I, Què és la Xina preparat per fer?

Cotton policy remains as an issue to be addressed before deciding on overall domestic supports. The Bali ministerial meeting continued a dedicated discussion process, but actual negotiations have not taken place. The ACP (Africà, Carib i el Pacífic) grup dels països en desenvolupament ha destacat en la seva proposta recent que una solució en cotó ha de ser part de qualsevol resultat de Doha, i que els resultats relacionats amb l'agricultura hauria de concloure abans de la conferència ministerial WTO a Nairobi, Kenya al desembre d'enguany.

Quan la ronda de Doha de xerrades estancat 2008, the negotiators had tentatively agreed on the so-called Swiss formula for reduction in tariffs with the highest tariffs cut the most and developed countries cutting more than developing one. La 2008 proposta provisional establert normes per un mecanisme d' especial protecció" (SSM) Això permetria als països en desenvolupament a protegir els seus productors nacionals i va permetre decidir per si mateixos quins productes agrícoles podria estar blindat de rebaixes aranzelàries per designant-la com "productes especials", with some exempted from any cut at all. All of this was done under the theme of ‘development’.

Controversy over these provisions helped to cause the negotiations to collapse in 2008. Alternatives have begun to surface. Argentina has proposed a return to past rounds when negotiators put forward requests for greater access to other countries’ markets, a canvi de concessions de comerç que vols ofereixen a canvi. Aquestes concessions en última instància, s'aplicaria a tots els membres sota el principi de nació més afavorida.

Paraguai ha proposat una reducció mínima en totes les línies de tarifa agrícola per a tots els desenvolupats i països en desenvolupament, but set a different level for developed and developing countries. Developed countries would have minimum tariff reductions of 20 per cent i una mitjana de 54 per cent; països en desenvolupament a un 15 mínim per cent i 36 per cent de mitjana. Implementation would be over five years for developed countries and ten years for developing ones. Countries would use the average formula with minimum cuts for each tariff line similar to the method used in the Uruguay Round in 1986-94 amb el pas addicional de permetre que els membres de buscar addicionals solcant peticions bilaterals i pluriculturalisme-lateral i ofereix.

The proposals by Argentina and Paraguay appear to be in response to calls by some to reduce the complexity of proposed cuts to limits on tariffs and farm subsidies. La UE, U.S., Canadà i menys Corea del Sud, creu que la 2008 tarifes proposades no ha de ser utilitzat en un nou marc, mentre que molts països en desenvolupament creuen que la 2008 tariffs should be the basis for negotiations. China has insisted on the Swiss formula because it objects to the request-offer approach that could make it a target of a lot of requests. Developing countries fought for exceptions to the Swiss formula and do not know if they could be repeated under a different formula.

The agricultural talks also have public stockholding issues for food programs in developing countries. These are left over from last year’s implementation of a trade facilitation agreement approved at the WTO ministerial meeting in Bali in December 2013. Those talks have a year-end target date deadline set by the WTO General Council in Novembre 2014 for producing a permanent deal to replace the interim agreement approved in Bali. L'u. suggestion that countries ‘evaluate and review’ public food stockholding policies has been met with critical responses from developing countries. L'u. has previously argued that subsidized food purchased at government-set prices distort markets and are an inefficient way of achieving food security objectives. The differences of opinions have not been reduced and no movement has been made toward a consensus.

There is nothing so far in the talks that would indicate a different outcome from 2008. Developing countries have the same entitlement attitude that developed countries make all the adjustments and developing countries pursue protectionist policies that retard economic reforms. There appears to be no recognition of the economic changes in the world that have occurred since November 2001. The talks are stuck in a time warp.

Com les negociacions agrícoles president Adank va dir:, “There is a clear need for further consultations aimed at getting deeper into the substance of a possible outcome.” WTO Director-General Roberto Azevedo is likely to hold off on conducting intensive consultations until the chairmen of the negotiating committees work through more issues. Based on what is publically known about the talks to date, que podria ser una espera llarga.

Ross Korves és un comerç i analista de política econòmica de veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia (www.truthabouttrade.org). Segueix-nos: @TruthAboutTrade i @World_Farmers a Twitter | Veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia en Facebook.