Lliure comerç d'EUA. productes d'alimentació i l'aviram de l'u. to Mexico has allowed Mexican producers and consumers to benefit from lower feed costs and lower retail broiler prices. The movement of broiler hatching eggs in recent months to Mexico to replace eggs lost to highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) és l'últim exemple de com el lliure comerç ha advantaged productors i consumidors.

El període de transició NAFTA de lliure comerç per a u. carn avícola exporta a Mèxic va acabar el gener 1, 2003. U. barri de cama de pollastre (CLQ), anomenat carn fosca en la EUA. i venent a preus molt més baixos en l'u. de carn de pit, les exportacions a Mèxic van ser sotmesos una salvaguarda temporal que va durar fins TRQ 2008. This was an agreement between the Mexican and U.S. governs, not part of NAFTA. CLQs are an affordable product for low-income Mexican consumers. U. productors van ser acusats de 2011 of dumping CLQs and anti-dumping duties were established in 2012. With outbreaks of HPAI in 2012 i 2013, el govern mexicà va optar per no aplicar les funcions mentre el mercat d'aviram domèstic estava en el caos.

L'u. Agricultural Attaché in Mexico estimates that six out of every ten pounds of animal protein consumed in Mexico are either poultry meat or eggs. They are the most affordable animal protein and demand is strongly inelastic. That means that consumption does not decline much as prices increase because there is not an affordable animal protein alternative.

Importacions dels EUA. broiler pieces have sometimes been used as a loss leader even cheaper than beans and tortillas. Dark meat chicken remains a staple food in most low-income household, while high-value cuts and added-value processed products are consumed by middle and upper income households. That is why the government did not follow through on anti-dumping duties that would have further increased consumer prices and the industry imported hatching eggs to fill-in where breeding flocks fell short.

Alguns ramats criador graella havia estat impactat, but the general thinking was that these flocks were recovering with only limited impact on production in Mexico. Analysts in the U.S. que segueixen l'u. graella indústria notat augmenta en set ous i predir una possible 4 per cent a l'any rere any augmenten en pollastres d'engreix l'u. en 2016, suficient per fer mal rendibilitat.

Segons analista Brett Hundley amb BB&Mercats de capitals T, "No obstant això, hem escoltat recentment de múltiples contactes de la indústria que Bachoco basat en Mèxic ha estat utilitzant la seva filial en els EUA, Aliments correcte, per definir pullets gradualment més als EUA per a l'exportació d'ous per incubar torna a [Mèxic].” U.S. eclosió ou exporta a Mèxic una mitjana 1.7 milió dotzena al mes de gener a agost de l'any passat i més que doblat a 3.6 million dozen per month from September to November. This could only happen if the industries in both countries were similar in type of chicken fed and processing systems. The recent discovery of HPIA in California may slow that process.

La indústria mexicana graella ha tingut una relació a llarg termini amb l'u. indústria. According to projections by the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) d'USDA, Mèxic consumirà 3.9 milions de tones mètriques (. MMT) of broiler meat in 2015. Les importacions són esperats estar 0.740 . MMT (98 per cent dels EUA).

The Mexican meat industry would not be the size it is today without duty free feed imports from its two NAFTA partners. According to analysis in NAFTA al 20: Zona de comerç lliure nord-americans i el seu impacte en l'agricultura el servei de recerca econòmica (ERS) d'USDA, consum per càpita a Mèxic des de 1993 a 2013 de pollastres d'engreix i Turquia Rosa 90 per cent a 70 lliures i porc augmentat 60 per cent a 35 lliures. U. Exporta a Mèxic de pinsos cereals, llavors oleaginoses, i productes relacionats va augmentar una mitjana de 8.3 . MMT durant 1989-92 a 18.5 MMT per year during 2008-12. To meet the growing demand for corn, the Mexican government repeatedly issued corn import permits beyond the quantity required by NAFTA at tariff rates far below the maximum allowed over-quota tariff rate. These imports did not prevent domestic corn production from also increasing to meet demand.

Malgrat l'estreta relació de treball de la indústria, trade has been a one-way street. Animal health issues related to Exotic Newcastle Disease and HPAI prevent increased trade. Mexico is eligible to export processed poultry meat to the U.S., but that market is small. Solving those animal health issues would likely change trade flows between the two countries and with third countries.

Mentre que l'u. subministraments 98 per cent de les importacions de carn de pollastre i Turquia, Chile and Canada are leading suppliers of the remaining market. Mexico has established tariff rate quotas for chicken, turkey and mechanically deboned meat from countries with which it does not already have a free trade agreement. That includes Brazil, the world’s largest broiler exporter. A large Brazilian company has purchased several top companies in the Mexican poultry industry. The Agricultural Attaché believes it will first focus on the whole chicken and frozen breast markets, no el mercat de barri CLQ.

L'ERS NAFTA al 20 report points out that the three countries have chosen to not pursue further economic integration through a customs union or a common market. That does not mean there no further economic efficiencies to be gained from economic integration. The three countries are working to “increase the fluidity of cross-border economic activity” within the free trade agreement. The report says there are two key principles in this work. “First, each country is viewed as a major stakeholder in the regulatory systems of the other country”. “Second, the new frameworks place strong emphasis on regulatory simplification.” Following these two principles may further reduce costs so that countries like Brazil do not gain a substantial share of the broiler market in Mexican, o l'u.

L'altre punt principal de l'informe ERS és que els tres països NAFTA té un total de 30 acords de lliure comerç amb 53 countries outside the NAFTA region. While there is some ‘preference erosion’ for the NAFTA countries in signing more FTA, la integració econòmica logra del TLCAN, amb més per venir, should give them a viable platform to compete in those markets. All three NAFTA countries are also part of the ‘super-regional’ Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement talks with nine other Pacific countries.

La integració econòmica existent dels EUA. i mercats mexicans graella és una base ferma per construir més integració dins dels països de la NAFTA i entre d'altres socis comercials.

Ross Korves és un comerç i analista de política econòmica de veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia (www.truthabouttrade.org).

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