Per segona vegada en dos anys, l'OMC ha rebutjat els esforços del USDA per aplicar el Congrés dels Estats Units mandat país d'origen de l'etiquetatge (REFREDAR) for meat. The WTO again said the U.S. pot tenir aquest programa Etiquetatge de vedella i porc, però el programa actual de les forces nord-americà. packers to discriminate against Canadian cattle and hogs and Mexican cattle. The Canadian government is preparing to place retaliatory tariffs on U.S. exportació al Canadà quan l'OMC s'aprova-los, probablement no abans de finals 2015.
Obligatori país d'origen de l'etiquetatge de carn va ser aprovat pel Congrés com a part de la 2008 projecte de llei agrícola. The governments of Canada and Mexico immediately initiated WTO dispute settlement proceedings against the U.S. el desembre del 2008. Al novembre 2011 un panell de resolució de conflictes WTO confirmat l'u. dret a tenir un programa, però en desacord amb la manera com l'u. dissenyat els seus requisits i determina que les regles oferir tractament menys favorable a Canadà i Mèxic bestiar de la u. Ramaderia. A 2012 WTO Appellate Body ruling confirmed that position. Al maig 2013, USDA implementar un programa revisada es creu que estava d'acord amb u. law and the previous WTO ruling. A WTO compliance panel has now found that the COOL requirements for beef and pork continue to discriminate against Canadian and Mexican livestock exports.
Part of the problem for Canadian and Mexican cattle producers and Canadian hog producers is that the industries had achieved a high level of industry integration under NAFTA. In an Economic Research Service of USDA report in 2009 NAFTA al 15: Edifici el lliure comerç (un informe mandat pel Congrés), els economistes va explicar, "Alt grau d'integració en el bestiar, carn de boví, porcs, i porc. Expanded Canadian hog exports to U.S. include larger proportion of feeder animals that are completed in U.S. Growing two-way trade in cattle and beef. High degree of integration regarding U.S. producers and the Mexican market. Medium degree of integration regarding Mexican producers and the U.S. mercat, excepte bestiar alimentador (alta).” Disease control was the limiting factor for Mexican pork exports to the U.S. The resource efficiencies created by NAFTA are being undone by COOL which creates losers who had previously responded to market forces and public policies.
L'u. és un perdedor de dues vegades a l'OMC sobre aquest tema, which indicates the need for a substantial course correction. USDA Secretary Vilsack has told the media that he has requested his staff to seek a fine line between the U.S. law about specific labeling and the WTO issue of importers’ segregation costs. As a member of management in the Executive Branch, ell l'obligació de dur a terme la llei aprovada pel Congrés i signat pel President. But this sounds too much like the first two failed attempts to have a creditable program.
El Ministre canadenc d'agricultura i alimentació Agri Canadà, Sr.. Gerry Ritz, has been vocal in pushing the COOL issue. He told AgriTalk radio, Segons un expedient no oficial,"Ni més ni menys la derogació completa en realitat farà aquesta cosa desapareix. We’re not going to spend the next years looking over our shoulder waiting for another shoe to drop. “He went on to say that he expects the U.S. to appeal the ruling to string out the process. He will continue to talk about retaliatory tariffs so U.S. indústries saber qui pagarà si no estigui derogat fresc.
A reasonable assumption is that COOL will be changed in some substantive manner. The most strait forward approach would be to adopt a NAFTA label. All beef and pork produced in the three countries would carry the label and all exports from the three countries would be under a common system. That would recognize the integrated industries that exist and seek to maximize those efficiencies. This would be forcefully opposed by some of the biggest supporters of the current system. This option will not be chosen.
Minister Ritz made two critical points. Canada wants COOL ended and it’s up to the U.S. to propose an alternative or face retaliation. L'u. just ended a twelve year dispute with Brazil over cotton farm policy and export credit programs. The final agreement does not look like what either side expected twelve years ago. The only important point is that both sides agreed on the settlement. Ritz has his bottom line – COOL repeal or tariff retaliation. What can the U.S. proposar?
One easy answer is for Congress to repeal the law. That would take action by Congress that has been deeply divided on the issue for over a decade. However hard or easy that may be to do politically, que vols una solució acceptable d'una perspectiva política de comerç. Minister Ritz would have no complaints.
Another easy answer is to make administrative changes under current law. That is a version of the Vilsack solution mentioned earlier. Those who support that solution have not put specific ideas on the table. This could be viewed by the Canadians as a delaying tactic.
Others are asking Secretary Vilsack to suspend the COOL rule indefinitely while efforts are made to work out an agreement. This would remove the option of retaliatory tariffs for Canada. An offshoot of this idea is to have Congress to pass legislation to authorize and direct the Secretary to rescind elements of COOL that have been determined to be noncompliant with international trade obligations by a final WTO adjudication. This would supposedly allow more Members of the House and Senate to vote for more open trade rather than opposing COOL directly. If this creates the political opportunity to have good trade policy, it has to be seen as a positive option. Whether the Canadians can live with some level of uncertainty remains to be seen, però ha de ser millor que el statu quo i represàlies.
Empreses al Canadà que pot ser menys disposats a tenir aranzels de represàlia que Sr.. Ritz believes. In the cotton and export credit case with Brazil, their industries were reluctant to pay higher tariffs that would increase their cost of doing business. Just as the pork and beef industries in Canada have become highly integrated, indústries canadencs no agrícoles han altament integrat cadenes de subministrament amb u. partners. U. i les empreses canadenques poden tenir més influència que s'esperava com les indústries brasilers.
Com a perdedors de dues sentències arbitrals WTO, l'u. Govern ha de trobar un acord amb Canadà que honora els nostres compromisos WTO.
Ross Korves és un comerç i analista de política econòmica de veritat sobre comerç &Tecnologia (www.truthabouttrade.org). Segueix-nos: @TruthAboutTrade en Refilar |Veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia en Facebook.