Les reunions anuals del g-20 caps-de-estat de la 20 les principals economies comptable per sobre 80 percent of the world’s GDP are infamous for grand promises of new programs that quickly disappear when the meetings adjourn. The real value in the gatherings is the wording of the Leaders’ Declaration at the close of the meeting for public policies for which the heads-of-state believe they need to have opinions. The positions taken on issues like trade are usually bland enough that no one has serious objections, però el futur de tant en tant ve a través de.

La declaració de reunió de la setmana passada a St. Petersburg, Rússia va ser una concisa 27 pàgines amb temes que van des de llocs de treball de qualitat, normativa financera, to climate change. Trade was item number three in the body of the report after getting a paragraph in the declaration’s preamble where leaders supported free trade within the WTO rules-based system. They also committed to refrain from protectionist measures and enhance transparency in trade.

Gairebé la meitat de la pàgina de comentaris detallats sobre el comerç un tractat amb l'OMC i la pròxima IX Conferència Ministerial de l'OMC el desembre a Bali, Indonèsia. The leaders saw an agreement in Bali on trade facilitation and some agricultural and development issues as a ‘stepping stone’ to further multilateral trade liberalization and progress in the Doha Round of trade policy negotiations, ara ve en la seva 12th year anniversary. Per a ells, Doha no ha mort. They believe transparency is a cornerstone of the multilateral trade system and committed to complying with WTO notification requirements in a timely manner.

Van estendre a través de 2016 seva pignoració donat primer en 2008 to not adopt new protectionist measures and to roll back existing ones. They commented positively on the monitoring of trade and investment restricting measures by the WTO, l'organització de cooperació i desenvolupament econòmic (L'OCDE) i el Comitè de les Nacions Unides sobre comerç i desenvolupament (UNCTAD). Des de 2008 the three organizations have jointly monitored the G20 countries concerning restrictive trade measures. For the seven months ending in May, els països del g-20 implementats més de 100 noves mesures comercials restrictives, with fewer removed and the total number continuing to grow. Many of the G20 leaders recognize they are part of the problem and are willing to take criticism in the hope it will retard the move toward protectionism by their countries and others.

The EU Commission was even more direct in a report released just days before the G20 meeting. En 2008, es començava a controlar 31 dels seus principals socis comercials, including the G20 countries. They identified 150 noves restriccions de comerç va presentar l'any passat amb l'única 18 restrictive measures removed. Brasil, Argentina, Russia and Ukraine were noted for having applied the heaviest tariff rate increases. Brazil also accounted for more than one-third of the restrictions related to government procurement, seguida d'Argentina i l'Índia. The EU has counted almost 700 nou comerç restrictives mesures ja es començava a controlar la 31 països en 2008. Some leaders at the G20 are knowingly pursuing protectionist’s policies, però no reconèixer públicament aquesta realitat a perquè els seus propis ciutadans es veuen perjudicats per aquestes normes.

L'últim número de comerç dels països del g-20 adreçat era cadenes de valor globals (GVC), "Reconeixem la importància de conèixer millor la ràpida expansió de cadenes de valor globals (GVCs) i impactes de la participació en GVCs de creixement, estructura industrial, development and job creation.” The head-of-state or staff person who included this point in the Leaders’ Declaration made a critical contribution to understanding 21St century trade. Trade has generally been thought of as a one way process of exports or imports, but trade has increasingly become a value chain across borders in which companies in several countries participate. A country either adopts some level of free trade and transparency or is left out of GVCs and has only one-dimensional trade.

G-20 caps d'estat va demanar l'OMC, OECD and UNCTAD to continue research to study the impacts on economic growth and job creation. They also note that “making available value-added trade statistics may help countries in due course to decide upon appropriate policymaking options to benefit from GVCs.” This is not a new idea. The Asian Development Bank Institute in 2010 examined the supply chain of the iPhone to determine the value added. The iPhone technically contributes to the U.S. dèficit comercial amb la Xina assumint que el valor sencer del telèfon a l'engròs es crea a la Xina, el país d'exportació el producte acabat. The components were actually manufactured by companies based in China and several other countries. L'única part de tot el procés que és inequívocament “Xinès” és l'Assemblea final que només afegit $6.50 a la $178.96 valor a l'engròs d'un iPhone.

Alguns dels líders dels països en desenvolupament en el G20 eren probablement pensant en com convertir-se en part de la fabricació o muntatge part de cadenes de subministrament global, but that would be missing part of the bigger picture. The ADBI study examined only the composition of the $178.96 in manufacturing costs. The iPhones in 2010 típicament vendrà per 50% a 100% més que això. The difference consisted of the value of Apple’s intellectual property and the value of marketing the latest consumer product. Korean companies like Samsung, LG i Hyundai ara estan guanyant marges addicionals com venedors a l'engròs dels seus productes acabats.

The WTO and OECD are developing a data base to show the value added by trade. In traditional trade data, compte per menys de un quart del comerç mundial total de serveis. On a value-added basis, compte de serveis més de la meitat de comerç per a països com els EUA. i Alemanya. This is an ongoing project to develop the best measures of trade in the era of GVCs. The G20 leaders asked for a report from the OECD in the first half of 2014.

The inclusion of trade transparency and global value chains in the G20 Leaders’ Declaration does not signal the end of destructive trade policies. It does indicate that countries that see trade as critical to economic growth understand the need for new trade policies and are making their voices heard. That is good news for the WTO Ministerial Conference in December and trade policy discussions in coming years.

Ross Korves és un comerç i analista de política econòmica de veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia (www.truthabouttrade.org). Segueix-nos: @TruthAboutTrade en Refilar | Veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia en Facebook.