Brasil és considerat un país en desenvolupament, però l'ha convertit en una potència econòmica com un gran exportador i agroalimentàries ara representa 28 per cent del PIB. Brazil’s Ambassador to the WTO, Roberto Azevedo, is one of two candidates to become Director General of the WTO. The Brazilian government’s recent notification to the WTO of agricultural subsidies for the 2009/10 any de collita ha plantejat qüestions sobre posicions del Brasil sobre comerç-distorsionant domèstics donar suport a les polítiques.

Granja total suport pel govern brasiler, definida per l'OMC es valorava a $10.0 milions de dòlars per 2009/10. Almost half of that, $4.91 milions de dòlars, was in the ‘green box’ considered to be minimally trade distorting and not subject to limits. The largest category was domestic food aid at $1.72 milions de dòlars. That is typical of many countries, incloent-hi l'u. Government holding of food stocks for food security purposes was reported at $653 milions. This included $386 million ‘for acquisition of agricultural products from family farming’. There is a proposal at the WTO to greatly expand this category for developing countries. Other major categories in the green box were extension and advisory services at $800 milions, infraestructura a $622 milions, reforma agrària a $430 milions i la recerca al $285 milions.

Com un país de desenvolupament, Brazil can have some development programs under ‘special and differential treatment’ that are also exempt from limits. These programs totaled $1.65 milions de dòlars, la majoria dels quals va ser per a la inversió en la millora de l'estructura rural, adquisició de maquinària i equips i serveis animals $1.44 milions de dòlars. Other programs included production credit for low-income or resource-poor farmers, subsidis d'insums i la reprogramació de deute.

Brasil havia $3.48 milions d'agregat mesures de suport (AMS) en 2009/10 in domestic support that was classified in the ‘amber box’ as trade-distorting subsidies that must be limited and reduced over time. Non-product specific AMS totaled $2.53 milions de dòlars. Debt rescheduling programs accounted for $1.53 milions de dòlars del total AMS i producció i comercialització de crèdit va ser un altre $822 million in AMS. Les restants $176 million was for direct outlays for a risk minimizing agribusiness program. Non-product specific support is considered ‘de minimis’ for developing countries if it is less than 10 percent of the total value of production. Non-specific product support was only 2.47 per cent del valor total de la producció de $102 milions de dòlars.

La caixa de color ambre restant AMS era en $950 million of product-specific domestic support. Corn had the highest AMS at $293 milions, seguit de cotó a $269 milions, cafè $137 milions, arròs $126 milions, blat $75 milions, canya de sucre $24 milions i comestibles fesols $23 milions. Developing countries are allowed product-specific AMS up to 10 percent of the value of production of the product before the AMS is considered beyond the de minimis and reportable to the WTO. Cotton was the only crop beyond the limit at 11.5 per cent del valor de la producció i el seu valor AMS de $269 milions era l'única AMS segons el sostre de color ambre caixa AMS de $912 million for trade-distorting domestic support. Sugar’s AMS of $24 milions per a un programa d'igualtat de cost de producció, és un insignificant 0.15 per cent d'un valor de cultiu al $16.0 milions de dòlars.

Brasil informes una baixa total esmenes 2009/10 was no great surprise because market prices have been relatively high since 2008. Those high prices reduce payments for crops with minimum price guarantees and the high value of the crop makes payments low as a percent of total value. També, Brasil té la 10 per cent de l'activació valor de minimis en comparació amb un 5 limitar per cent per als països desenvolupats.

Segons els informes dels EUA. Agrícola adjunta al Brasil, there are three main ongoing payment programs. The Subsidy Auction Program (PEP) és similar a l'u. programa de pagament de préstecs deficiència. The government pays the difference between the prevailing market price and the minimum price of the product. Payments were made for edible beans, blat de moro i blat de 2009/10.

La igualtat Premium pagat a productor (PEPRO) és un complement concedit per l'agricultor o cooperativa que ven els seus productes a subhasta pública, where the government pays the difference between the reference value established by the government and the value of the premium. All the cotton payments in 2009/10, $269 milions, were made under this program. Corn payments under the program were $38 milions.

La prima de risc per a l'opció privat (PUNTAL) és un programa de suport preu gestionat per CONAB, equivalent a la Corporació de crèdit mercaderia d'USDA, which is linked to the Ministry of Agriculture. It represents the maximum amount that CONAB will pay to cooperatives and processors in order to guarantee a certain price to producers, which is above the market price. Sobre 15 per cent de la soja produïda en 2006 i 2007 on participa en un dels programes, però els productors de soja no han rebut pagaments des d'aleshores.

Pagaments de govern directe, mentre que, excepció de cotó, eren relativament petits o inexistents en 2009/10 i des de llavors, that does not mean that farmers are just relying on market conditions. Brazil has had a continuing problem of farmers with heavy debt loads from past years of borrowing to rapidly expand production and low incomes due to weather conditions. Low-cost government lending and debt rescheduling shown with an AMS of $1.53 mil milions al 2009/10 afecten cada conreu, including sugar and soybeans. The Brazilian government of President Dilma Rouseff is expected to announce later this month a government credit program for 2013/14 amb aquest tipus d'interès de 2.5 per cent, per sota de 5.5 per cent aquest any, i més gran que el programa d'enguany de $58 milions de dòlars.

La 2009/10 AMS total segons el sostre de color ambre caixa per al Brasil no és un bon indicador de què l'AMS podria ser en el futur, igual que l'u. or any other country that has relatively low price and income guarantees at a time of high market prices. Lower prices will occur, i el govern brasiler va mostrar a 2006 i 2007 that they have the programs in place to buffer the adjustments that need to occur. Brazil could very quickly develop AMS limit problems.

Ross Korves és un comerç i analista de política econòmica de veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia (www.truthabouttrade.org). Segueix-nos: @TruthAboutTrade a Twitter | Veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia a Facebook.