El desembre de l'any passat l'u. L'oficina del representant comercial alliberat el 2012 Informar al Congrés OMC compliment de la Xina, la 11th annual report mandated in the U.S.-China Relations Act of 2000. Agriculture is one of the nine broad categories of WTO commitments undertaken by China examined in the report.

El segon paràgraf del resum de l'informe inclou una observació clau, "Per part de l'última dècada, el govern xinès ha estat re-fent èmfasi en paper de l'estat en l'economia, diverging from the path of economic reform that drove China’s accession to the WTO.” WTO rules are designed to provide certainty for buyers and sellers operating across market economies. China’s agricultural trade policies do not decrease uncertainties and at times adds to them, que són perjudicials per al comerç i llocs d'importadors i consumidors en desavantatge.

La secció d'agricultura de l'informe comença assenyalant que la Xina ha complert amb el seu compromís de reduir els aranzels sobre els productes agrícoles d'una mitjana de 31 per cent en 1997 a 14 per cent per gener 2006. Agricultural exports from the U.S. a la Xina va augmentar de $2.0 milions de dòlars l'any calendari 2002 a un USDA projectat $21.2 mil milions per a l'any fiscal que va començar d'octubre 1, 2012. Un altre $4.0 milions de dòlars dels EUA. exports are expected to go to Hong Kong. But the report notes, "... .the potencial d'accés de mercat ple de talls de tarifa de la Xina no es va realitzar per a alguns productes. …una gran varietat de barreres no aranzelàries continuar impedir l'accés al mercat per a u. exportacions agrícoles a la Xina, especialment les exportacions de productes de consumidors preparada i amb valor afegit."

Tarifa tarifa quotes (TRQ) per a granel principal mercaderies van ser extingit des 2001-2004 and then fixed. The TRQ for wheat was fixed at 9.6 milions de tones mètriques (. MMT) amb l'estat comerç quota a 90 per cent, blat a 7.2 . MMT i 60 percentatge estat negociat, arròs de gra curt/mig i arròs llarg TRQs fixar 2.66 . MMT cada i 50 percentatge estat negociats i cotó a 0.89 . MMT i 30 percentatge estat negociat. Oilseeds and products do not have TRQs. The vision was that these would lead to transparent, market driven decisions to import products. Des del principi, the State Development and Planning Commission and now the National Development and Reform Commission used the lack of transparency in the TRQ process to protect domestic interests and favor state trading enterprises. TRQs regularly go unused and despite U.S. esforços per fer el sistema més obert, transparència qüestions romanen. After ten years of use, no hi ha cap raó per a TRQs seguir sent un misteri, llevat que sigui per mantenir el control estatal del comerç.

Agricultural crop biotechnology regulations have had continuing problems with timeliness to avoid trade disruptions and the protection of intellectual property. China continues to require approval for a trait in the country of origin before it can be submitted for approval in China, which guarantees a lack of timely approval of new traits. Five new products were given approval in May 2012 i 12 existents eren reapproved a desembre 2012, but other new events are waiting for approval. Foreign investment restrictions continue to limit product development and control of genetic resources.

Temes sanitaris i Fito-sanitaris (SPS) are the biggest challenge as regulations continue to be imposed in a non-transparent manner and without clear scientific bases. China’s beef market continues to be totally closed to U.S. beef because of BSE issues. Mentre que l'u. està en negociacions amb altres països de mercats totalment oberts, Xina té encara un mercat tancat, even though there have been repeated promises of an open market. China banned the imports of U.S. porc a l'abril de 2009 a causa de la preocupació sobre el virus grip A H1N1, but the international consensus is that the virus is not transported by meat products. The ban was lifted in March 2010, i la Xina continua demanda H1N1 llengua certificats d'exportació de porc que l'u. considers inappropriate based on science. China continues to ban poultry products from certain states due to Avian Influenza.

Xina té un límit zero tolerància per la presència de bacteris salmonella, Listeria i altres patògens, even though elimination of these is not considered achievable. There appears to be a ‘national treatment’ issue because China does not apply the same standards to domestic raw meat and poultry. It also has a zero tolerance for ractopamine which is inconsistent with a recent Codex decision that the product is safe.

Acord OMC SPS, most SPS measures must be reported to the WTO SPS Committee and affected members should have the chance to respond before the measures take effect. Des de 2003, l'u. ha comptat més de 250 mesures que no s'han identificat al Comitè de SPS OMC.

Importadors són necessàries per obtenir un permís d'inspecció de quarantena (QIP) before signing purchase contracts for almost all agricultural commodities. The USTR report states, “QIPs are one of the most important trade policy issues affecting the United States and China’s other agricultural trading partners.” Since 2004 QIPs han estat vàlids durant sis mesos i s'emeten amb freqüència, però la incertesa encara existeix perquè importadors tenen una finestra molt estret per adquirir, transport and unload cargo before the QIP expires. Traders are hesitant to push for changes because they risk falling out of favor with what remains a very arbitrary system. Little improvement has been made since 2004 Malgrat continuar u. pressió.

The best indication of the difficulties in the regulatory structure on imports to China is the narrow range of products actually imported. For the first ten months of 2012, total u. les exportacions agrícoles a la Xina van ser $21.7 milions de dòlars. Whole soybeans and products were $10.3 milions de dòlars, 47.3 per cent del total. Cotton exports were another $3.1 milions de dòlars, 14.3 per cent del total. Hides and skins and coarse grains were next in line at about $1.0 billion each. Pork imports were $500 milions, i els productes lactis es van $350 milions. Other consumer-ready and value-added products are far down the list. One positive factor is that the product list is more diversified than it was a few years ago.

There is no easy way in the WTO system to force a government to choose a market based policy structure with minimal government control. Cases can be filed at the WTO, but that is a slow and costly process. Governments have to see such an approach as being in the best interest of consumers, que és fonamental per a una economia basada en el mercat.

Ross Korves és analista de política econòmica de la veritat sobre comerç & Tecnologia (www.truthabouttrade.org).