La producció agrícola i comerç entre l'u. i Canadà estan jugant un paper molt més important que s'esperava en l'Associació Trans-Pacífic (TPP) acord de lliure comerç (TLC) xerrades. U. hog producers have voiced concerns about subsidies to the Canadian industry. Under NAFTA pork is freely traded between the two countries; qualsevol augment de la producció al Canadà pot pressionar en u. market prices. Both countries compete in export markets and Canadian pork not used at home or sent to the U.S. proporciona la competència en altres mercats.

L'u. indústria de producció de porc és particularment sensible a tots els programes que vols augmentar la producció de carn de porc ara a causa dels costos de menjar més alt a causa de la sequera i els records de la reducció en els darrers anys dels EUA. and Canadian swine breeding herds to reduce oversupply and stem heavy financial losses. According to data from the National Agricultural Statistical Service of USDA, el ramat de cria porcina canadenc incrementat de 1.35 milions capçal en gener 2000 a 1.63 million head by January 2005. L'u. ramat de cria porcina mantingut inalterable a 6.23 milions capçal en 2000 i 2008, but increases in litter size continued to put downward pressure on market prices. With the help of government incentives that removed 237,000 sembra, el ramat de cria canadenc reduït per 19.7 per cent per gener 2011 a 1.31 milions responsable. L'u. ramat reduït 7.3 per cent de 2008 a 2011 a 5.79 milions responsable, el més petit ramat en els darrers anys.

En una declaració escrita proporcionada per part del Consell Nacional de productors de porc a l'oficina d'u. Representant de comerç (USTR) el gener 13, 2012 en resposta a un avís del Registre Federal per Comentaris sobre interès de Canadà en unir-se a la proposta de conveni TPP, over a dozen federal or provincial subsidies that impact hog production were identified. The program given the most attention was one introduced in 2011 en la província d'Ontario per seleccionar productes agrícoles, incloent-hi porcs, to provide income stabilization insurance through a risk management program. When market prices fall below a predefined support level, pagaria el programa 40 percent of the difference between the support price and the market price. The program is a countervailable subsidy under U.S. law and WTO commitments. The Canadian federal government refused to participate in the program because officials knew it would attract a countervailing duty case from the U.S.

El programa proposat tenia una prima de productor de 30 percent of indemnities with the federal and provincial governments paying the balance. With the withdrawal of the national government, the producer premium was waived for 2011. Data submitted to USTR indicated that payments would likely have been large had the program been in place when the herd reduction was occurring. That would have prevented the needed market adjustment from taking place. If the program raises market prices by an average of 4.9 per cent, vols augmentar la producció per 3.2 per cent. Economics Professor Dermot Hayes of Iowa State University estimated production would increase by 600,000 porcs anualment després de cinc anys i 1.3 milions anualment després de deu anys.

Província de Quebec té una granja ingressos estabilització programa d'assegurança que garanteix un benefici net positiu quan ingressos cau per sota d'un mínim establit. The province was forced to mitigate the production incentives of the program by implementing production controls. According to data provided by the province, les quotes són equivalents a 13 percent of the market prices for hogs in Canada. Removing the subsidy would reduce production by 3.0 milions de porcs cada any en cinc anys i 4.8 milions capçal en deu anys.

U. productors de porc també considerar programes de gestió de risc federal AgriStability, AgriInvest i AgriRecovery com a programes de subvenció que beneficiar els productors de porc. The Canadian Agricultural Loan Act guarantees 95 percent of loans made by private lenders. The government has committed to making a $1 billion of guarantees over the next five years. Farm Credit Canada provides low cost, flexible financing to hog producers. Canadian Agriculture Adaptation Program has $163 million to spend over five years to respond to new and emerging issues. It does not provide assistance directly to hog producers, but does indirectly through industry organizations. Various other provincial programs in Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec i Alberta proporcionar finançament, Assegurances, devolució i desenvolupament de programes d'impostos.

Baix cost crèdit fomenta la construcció d'edificis d'ús especial, com graners de porc, that have limited value for any use except hog production. If the original owners cannot operate profitably, the value of the buildings will be written down to the point that new owners can be profitable. Margin programs like those in Ontario and Quebec keep producers in business longer and prevent production adjustments that must be made at some point. With a large integrated market like the U.S., Canada and Mexico that adjustment could be forced onto another country. With Canada having just gone through a 20 reducció del ramat per cent, com pagar als productors a vendre les truges massacre, hog producers and governments should recognize the outcome of government encouraged expansion. Giving up livestock subsidies in developed countries has proven extremely hard to do. U. productors de porc són perfectes enfocar les polítiques principals al Canadà com crèdit subsidiat i protecció del marge on podria ocórrer danys substancials a l'u. indústria.

Removing all traces of government support is not likely to happen. Governments have two choices in dealing with more open trade. One is to engage in negotiations to eliminate trade barriers and government subsidies like is being discussed in the TPP talks. These can be tedious, però han demostrat avançar gradualment com 65 years of trade policy negotiations have shown. The other approach is to unilaterally remove tariffs and non-tariff barriers without worrying about how other countries respond.

The TPP free trade agreement has been promoted as a high standards agreement that will avoid many of the short-comings of previous FTAs. Dealing with the Canadian credit and income guarantee programs should be one of those high standards. That could create a negotiating atmosphere to take on subsidies in all industries, agrícola i no agrícola.

Ross Korves és un analista de política econòmica de veritat sobre comerç i tecnologia