L'OMC sanitari i fitosanitaris (SPS) Agreement allows member countries to impose import restrictions to protect animal and plant health and human food safety. The Obama Administration has just issued its third annual Informe sobre sanitaris i mesures de fitosanitaris destacant les polítiques que semblen ser utilitzat principalment per frenar els EUA. agricultural exports rather than address food safety concerns. Many of these are long standing issues with mind numbing details.

Canadà és el nostre mercat número u d'exportació enguany i u. L'oficina del representant comercial Ron Kirk no va identificar assumptes SPS que van tenir un impacte significatiu en la EUA. exportacions. Our other NAFTA partner, Mèxic, is the second largest market and has four serious SPS issues. Mexico continues to limit beef imports from the U.S. als animals 30 mesos d'edat o menys. They continue to delay implementing burdensome testing at the border of all palletized cardboard boxes of pork until new regulations for import inspection are developed. Uncertainty about the new rules and when they would be implemented has raised concerns among exporters. Potato shipments are limited to a 16 mile corridor along the border. Stone fruit imports are limited under a “California plan” that requires extra inspectors at the farm level to control the oriental fruit moth and other pests.

Com el mercat d'exportació tercera per als EUA, China received plenty of space in the report. Some of the issues like beef and biotechnology were similar to other countries. China banned U.S. beef imports immediately after the discovery of BSE in December of 2003. After promising to renew imports, they have failed to follow through. China imports biotech crops, sobretot de soja, i creix el cotó biotec, però exigeix el procés d'aprovació per l'ús d'un esdeveniment de biotecnologia a la Xina per començar només després que s'ha aprovat en el país d'origen.

Xina prohibeix les importacions dels EUA. de porc que conté qualsevol residu dels EUA. ractopamine de drogues aprovat, fins i tot quan traces estan per sota de l'u. límit màxim de residu (LMR) and the proposed Codex MRL. Mentre que el nord-americà. exportacions lactis continuar, els dos governs no han arribat a acord sobre un nou certificat d'exportació coherent amb l'OIE (Organització Mundial de Sanitat Animal) and Codex guidelines. China has imposed a zero tolerance limit for the presence of salmonella, Listeria i altres patògens en carn d'aviram i productes, encara que els científics de seguretat alimentària d'acord que eliminant patògens en carn crua no és possible.

Els dos països tenen un protocol d'origen nord-americà no remugants derivats els greixos animals i menjars (incloent-hi menjars domèstics), but China’s Ministry of Agriculture maintains a duplicative and cumbersome product-based registration process that inhibits or prevents imports. Imports of apples, peres, maduixes i les patates són restringida o totalment aturat per diversos problemes de plagues.

Japó és el quart més gran mercat d'exportació per u. l'agricultura. Only beef from animals 20 months old or younger is allowed to be imported. The Japanese government has begun reconsideration of that policy with a risk assessment by the Japanese Food Safety Commission. Many food additives widely used in the U.S. are not allowed in Japan and severely limit imports. Some additional additives have been approved recently, but more needs to be done. Japan classifies fungicides applied post‐harvest as food additives and requires them to undergo a separate risk assessment for the same ones applied pre-harvest. The two processes can take as long as six years and are inconsistent with Codex standards. Japan’s handling of MRL violations place a burden of industry-wide surveillance for a product after a violation and creates risks of trade disruptions. L'u. també necessita problema amb el Japó sobre l'arròs, carn d'aviram, patates, peres i cireres.

The EU is the fifth largest export market for the U.S. Importation and use of biotech crops face major trade barriers. The European Food Safety Authority takes more time than other countries’ comparable agencies to do a scientific assessment, but has always concluded that biotech crops are safe. The problems have been with the regulatory processes of the EU and member countries. L'u. també ha tingut una disputa amb la UE en la vedella criats amb creixement-promoció hormones on la ciència ha estat correcta, but the EU regulatory process has thwarted access. Similar problems have arisen over pathogen reduction treatment for beef and poultry meat. The beef case is being handled administratively, while the poultry case is in the WTO dispute resolution process. U. pork is caught in an expensive effort to show meat does not have ractopamine residue. L'u. també està involucrat en les controvèrsies sobre els additius color, cireres, subproductes animals i cèl·lula somàtica compta en llet.

Russia will likely become a WTO member this summer and the report highlighted the most important issues for the U.S. Russia has an approval process for biotech crops, but implementation of the process is of concern. They have zero tolerance for salmonella, Listeria i coliforms, però com es va assenyalar anteriorment, guaranteeing that in raw meat is not possible. Russia has a similar policy for unapproved veterinary drugs and near-zero policy for approved drugs. Beef and beef products must come from animals 30 months of age or younger. Pork products have a near-zero tolerance for the tetracycline group of antibiotics and must be frozen or tested for trichinosis. Imports of chlorine-treated chickens have been banned. U. productes lactis han estat prohibides des 2010 perquè u. exportadors no estan en una llista d'aprovat.

L'u. is already in WTO consultations with India concerning restrictions on poultry products because of concerns about high pathogen avian influenza. India also places unwarranted SPS requirements on milk product imports from the U.S.

Aquesta breu ressenya del subratlla de SPS qüestions és suficient per frustrar qualsevol persona interessada en la EUA un augment. exportacions, particularly of animal products and fruits. The WTO SPS Agreement is generally regarded as high quality and based on sound science. Many of the scientific assessment agencies, com la Agència Europea de seguretat alimentària, are considered fair arbitrators of the science. The problems center on the political will to follow the science rather than the easier route of protectionism. USTR Kirk and his team will have a never ending task again in 2012.

Ross Korves és un analista de política econòmica de la veritat sobre comerç i tecnologia