GabrielCarballalattended the Global Farmer Roundtable in 2012 and farms in Uruguay. The South American nation sits alongAtlanticOcean and shares borders with Brazil to the north and Argentina to the west and south. Like its two neighbors, the nations agriculture is quiteproductiveand Gabriel shares his responses to a few questions about how important trade is for his farm and nation.

*English is a second language for most members of the GFN and responses may be lightly-edited for clarity.

سؤال:The dictionary defines trade as both a noun and a verb both definitions describe the action of selling goods and services. ما مدى أهمية التجارة والقدرة على الوصول إلى الأسواق- لعملية الزراعة الخاصة بك?

غابرييل Carballal, GFN member from Uruguay.

إجابة:Im a farmer who lives in Uruguay, a South American country with a population of only 3.5 million inhabitants. All we produce (قمح, شعير, فول الصويا, حبوب ذرة, ماشية, etc.) ends with surplus. So trade and ability to access markets is essential to our operation. A free, clean and agile market is basic for our farming operation.

سؤال:عند الحديث عن التجارة, غالباً ما يتم التركيز على القدرة على بيع المنتجات والخدمات (صادرات). التجارة تغطي أيضا ما نشتريه. مدى أهمية القدرة على شراء السلع والخدمات لمزرعتك (واردات)? For example, ما هي بعض العناصر التي تشتريها و / أو تستوردها والتي تعتبر ضرورية لعملية الزراعة الخاصة بك لتكون مربحة?

إجابة:Thats correct. Inputs and local costs are really affected by trade defects. In my country the government tends to affect imports with several taxes and that affect my costs, sometimes to turn a profitable business to an unprofitable one. Our main problem are those goods fully controlled by our government like energy and fuel (government monopoly) which are used for transferring wealth from the rural to the urbanized areas. أن, plus big import taxes we have (يصل إلى 100% of the original value) are jeopardizing our operations.

As the soy field above and this picture show, the Carballal farm might be confused with one in the U.S. Midwest.

سؤال:برأيك, ما مدى أهمية الاتفاقيات التجارية لمزرعتك? لمجتمعك. إلى بلدك?

إجابة:I believe trade agreements are fundamental, not only for our farm but for the entire country. Its a demonstration of intelligence and evolution. There are numbers that shows how much money decants in actual commerce. It is said that less than 5% of the final price of any product goes to the farmer, to the originator. So any trade agreement that eases transactions and makes a flatter world must be a priority.

Roads, like this one in Uruguay, are crucial for efficietly transporting ag products.

سؤال:ما هو نوع البنية التحتية اللازمة لنقل المنتجات بكفاءة داخل وخارج عملية الزراعة الخاصة بك?

إجابة:Basically,logistics infrastructure. Routes, roads, الموانئ. Transportation costs are huge here in Uruguay. 3 إلى 8 times our neighbors. With thosenumbers, profit moves away. Taxation is also a wealth kidnap. Butthis timesforces us to compete in a global world with local costs and infrastructure.Unfortunately,rural efficiency is not the main concern right now.

سؤال:We are talking a lot about tariffs and trade wars all around the world right now. Are there other barriers to trade (الحواجز غير الجمركية) التي تؤثر على عملية الزراعة التي تهمك?

إجابة:Of course. Labeling is a perfect demonstration. That impacts our business clearly, a wealth customwheremoney disappears with almost no return.

World commerce is tricky and absorbing but also interesting. Non-tariff barriers are usual and we have to deal with all the time.Misinformation, misleading,lying, those are all types of confusing trade. Increasing each and every day

سؤال:في جملة أو جملتين, what message do you want to send your countrys trade negotiators / قادة السياسات فيما يتعلق بأهمية وتأثير الوصول التجاري أو العوائق على العملية الزراعية الخاصة بك والمجتمع ككل?

إجابة:Everything that make markets dirtier cuts wealth from all the commerce chain. Thats a lose-lose strategy. Be sure that each $ earned multiplies vastly. Its not necessary to harvest that $ earlier. Actual price situation is a demonstration of what happens in an artificially manipulated market