السنوات العشر بعد تخضير الحمضيات اكتشفت في ولاية فلوريدا في 2005, the citrus industry is ready to field test a potential solution. The Environmental Protection Agency (وكالة حماية البيئة) وقد وافق على استخدام التصريح البيئي (EUP) التطبيق تحت الحشرات الاتحادية, قانون فطريات والقوارض (FIFRA) لجنوب حدائق الموالح (SGC) to conduct large scale tests of citrus plants with a protein derived from spinach that appears to help control the disease. SGC President Rick Kress noted in a news release that a final solution to eliminating this disease may still take years.

The EPA website has the following general explanation about EUPs. EPA requires that a pesticide product undergo extensive chemical, متعلق بالسموم, and field-testing before being registered as a pesticide. Some testing is done under field conditions using commercial application equipment to fully understand the pesticides chemical properties, سلامة, and efficacy. Because testing undertaken as part of the registration process necessarily involves an unregistered product or is for a use not previously approved in the registration of the pesticide, EPA sometimes must first authorize the distribution and sale under FIFRA section 5. The EUP establishes limited conditions for the transportation, تطبيق, and disposal of the pesticide material used in the tests. Pesticides registered under an EUP may not be sold or distributed other than through approved participants in the test program, and use is limited to the conditions specified in the EUP. Biopesticides also require EUPs when used in experimental settings.

تم الكشف عن الحمضيات تخضير لأول مرة في 1900s في وقت مبكر عندما دمرت أشجار الحمضيات في الصين, حيث كما هو معروف huanglongbing (HLB), كما ترجم مرض تبادل لاطلاق النار الأصفر, by choking off the flow of nutrients. The disease is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, الكشف للمرة الأولى في ولاية فلوريدا في 1998, an insect that sucks the bacteria out of one tree and injects them into another as it feeds on the sap of leaves. The citrus industry in Florida tripled pesticide applications in an attempt to kill the insects to stop or slow the spread of the disease and feeds citrus trees additional micro- والعناصر الغذائية الكبرى والمنتجات تعزيز المقاومة, لكن القضاء لا يعتبر الآن خيارا مجديا.

ووفقا لتقرير فرقة العمل من المجلس الوطني للبحوث (NRC) ارجو ارفاق سيرتك الذاتية مع الرسالة 2010, a worldwide review of existing cultivated citrus found little or no evidence of immunity for any variety. The lack of immunity in any cultivated variety eliminated traditional breeding to transfer immunity into commercial varieties. With no hope of eradicating the disease or transferring immunity by traditional breeding, وكان مستقبل إنتاج عصير البرتقال التجاري في ولاية فلوريدا في خطر.

ان SGC أدى, one of the largest citrusproducers in Florida, with three groves all infected withcitrus greening, to seek solutionsto the disease. Theyparticipated in a wide variety of research projects with severaluniversities andstate and federal agencies focused on developingenvironmentally soundand scientifically proven methods to manage and controlthe disease. Included was the research on the protein derived from spinach that attacks the invading bacteria, والذي تم تطويره من خلال برنامج مع جامعة تكساس A&M جامعة الزراعية الحياة البحوث وإريك Mirkov, أستاذ علم الفيروسات النباتية في جامعة تكساس A&جامعة M, يسلاكو.

SGC قد الآن المضي قدما مع الاختبارات الميدانية, بما يتفق مع الشروط التي EPA المنصوص عليها في EUP, تقييم فعالية بروتين السبانخ ضد الحمضيات تخضير في الأنسجة النباتية الحمضيات والاستمرار في توليد البيئية, health and safety data that are required under federal law to support a fully registered product for commercial use. On the basis of SGCs related petition, أبرمت وكالة حماية البيئة أيضا أن بقايا من البروتين السبانخ في الحمضيات هي آمنة للجمهور.

وقال رئيس شركة كريس في بيان صحفي, The company directed a research focus towards spinach because it is already safely consumed daily and should be more favorably received by consumers. Kress went on to say, It is important to state that as all US regulatory controlled field trials and evaluations are on-going, there is no citrus fruit or juice product from the tests in the commercial product market today. As EPA said in its general explanation about EUPs, Some testing is done under field conditions Research theories and experiments will now be put to the test under real field conditions as allowed by the EUP from EPA.

في حين أن هناك الكثير من الأدلة من المحاصيل الأخرى حول سلامة التكنولوجيا, each crop is judged on the research information provided to EPA from field trials. The oranges from these trees are expected to be the same as conventional oranges, but that will have to be shown by the results of the data collected for EPA. Over 4.5 وقد نمت مليار فدان من محاصيل التكنولوجيا الحيوية في جميع أنحاء العالم منذ أن تم تسويقها التكنولوجيا في 1996.

إذا يتطور كما هو متوقع هذا البحث, oranges will not be the first fruit that has benefited from biotechnology. During the 1990s, papaya farmers in Hawaii almost lost the industry to the deadly ringspot virus that spread through the islands. It became almost impossible to grow the fruit. Papayas were made resistant to the virus by inserting a piece of the viruss own genes into papayas, effectively inoculating plants. The industry has recovered and 2,500 acres of biotech papayas are grown in Hawaii. China has about 20,000 acres. Other countries are developing resistant papayas for local markets.

Bananas may be next on the list of fruits threatened. The popular Cavendish variety is threatened by the Fusarium wilt fungus that has been spreading around the world for the last 20 سنوات.

ومع استمرار التجارب الميدانية, the industry is looking ahead to consumer reactions. Oranges and orange juice are widely traded globally. Citrus greening also exists wherever oranges are grown. What consumers decide will influence production and trade around the world.

روس Korves هو محلل السياسات التجارية والاقتصادية مع الحقيقة حول تجارة & تقنية (www.truthabouttrade.org). تابعنا: TruthAboutTrade و World_Farmers onTwitter| الحقيقة حول التجارة & Technology onموقع التواصل الاجتماعي الفيسبوك.